MPC

MPC 2018, ISSUE 4



Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

Cubic regularization in symmetric rank-1 quasi-Newton methods

Hande Y. Benson, David F. Shanno

Quasi-Newton methods based on the symmetric rank-one (SR1) update have been known to be fast and provide better approximations of the true Hessian than popular rank-two approaches, but these properties are guaranteed under certain conditions which frequently do not hold. Additionally, SR1 is plagued by the lack of guarantee of positive definiteness for the Hessian estimate. In this paper, we propose cubic regularization as a remedy to relax the conditions on the proofs of convergence for both speed and accuracy and to provide a positive definite approximation at each step. We show that the n-step convergence property for strictly convex quadratic programs is retained by the proposed approach. Extensive numerical results on unconstrained problems from the CUTEr test set are provided to demonstrate the computational efficiency and robustness of the approach.

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Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

The GeoSteiner software package for computing Steiner trees in the plane: an updated computational study

Daniel Juhl, David M. Warme, Pawel Winter, Martin Zachariasen

The GeoSteiner software package has for about 20 years been the fastest (publicly available) program for computing exact solutions to Steiner tree problems in the plane. The computational study by Warme, Winter and Zachariasen, published in 2000, documented the performance of the GeoSteiner approach—allowing the exact solution of Steiner tree problems with more than a thousand terminals. Since then, a number of algorithmic enhancements have improved the performance of the software package significantly. We describe these (previously unpublished) enhancements, and present a new computational study wherein we run the current code on the largest problem instances from the 2000-study, and on a number of larger problem instances. The computational study is performed using the commercial GeoSteiner 4.0 code base, and the performance is compared to the publicly available GeoSteiner 3.1 code base as well as the code base from the 2000-study. The software studied in the paper is being released as GeoSteiner 5.0 under an open source license.

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Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

A generalized alternating direction method of multipliers with semi-proximal terms for convex composite conic programming

Yunhai Xiao, Liang Chen, Donghui Li

In this paper, we propose a generalized alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) with semi-proximal terms for solving a class of convex composite conic optimization problems, of which some are high-dimensional, to moderate accuracy. Our primary motivation is that this method, together with properly chosen semi-proximal terms, such as those generated by the recent advance of block symmetric Gauss–Seidel technique, is capable of tackling these problems. Moreover, the proposed method, which relaxes both the primal and the dual variables in a natural way with a common relaxation factor in the interval of (0, 2), has the potential of enhancing the performance of the classic ADMM. Extensive numerical experiments on various doubly non-negative semidefinite programming problems, with or without inequality constraints, are conducted. The corresponding results showed that all these multi-block problems can be successively solved, and the advantage of using the relaxation step is apparent.

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Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

Matrix minor reformulation and SOCP-based spatial branch-and-cut method for the AC optimal power flow problem

Burak Kocuk, Santanu S. Dey, X. Andy Sun

Alternating current optimal power flow (AC OPF) is one of the most fundamental optimization problems in electrical power systems. It can be formulated as a semidefinite program (SDP) with rank constraints. Solving AC OPF, that is, obtaining near optimal primal solutions as well as high quality dual bounds for this non-convex program, presents a major computational challenge to today’s power industry for the real-time operation of large-scale power grids. In this paper, we propose a new technique for reformulation of the rank constraints using both principal and non-principal 2-by-2 minors of the involved Hermitian matrix variable and characterize all such minors into three types. We show the equivalence of these minor constraints to the physical constraints of voltage angle differences summing to zero over three- and four-cycles in the power network. We study second-order conic programming (SOCP) relaxations of this minor reformulation and propose strong cutting planes, convex envelopes, and bound tightening techniques to strengthen the resulting SOCP relaxations. We then propose an SOCP-based spatial branch-and-cut method to obtain the global optimum of AC OPF. Extensive computational experiments show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art SDP-based OPF solver and on a simple personal computer is able to obtain on average a 0.71% optimality gap in no more than 720 s for the most challenging power system instances in the literature.

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Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

RBFOpt: an open-source library for black-box optimization with costly function evaluations

Alberto Costa, Giacomo Nannicini

We consider the problem of optimizing an unknown function given as an oracle over a mixed-integer box-constrained set. We assume that the oracle is expensive to evaluate, so that estimating partial derivatives by finite differences is impractical. In the literature, this is typically called a black-box optimization problem with costly evaluation. This paper describes the solution methodology implemented in the open-source library RBFOpt, available on COIN-OR. The algorithm is based on the Radial Basis Function method originally proposed by Gutmann (J Glob Optim 19:201–227, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011255519438), which builds and iteratively refines a surrogate model of the unknown objective function. The two main methodological contributions of this paper are an approach to exploit a noisy but less expensive oracle to accelerate convergence to the optimum of the exact oracle, and the introduction of an automatic model selection phase during the optimization process. Numerical experiments show that RBFOpt is highly competitive on a test set of continuous and mixed-integer nonlinear unconstrained problems taken from the literature: it outperforms the open-source solvers included in our comparison by a large amount, and performs slightly better than a commercial solver. Our empirical evaluation provides insight on which parameterizations of the algorithm are the most effective in practice. The software reviewed as part of this submission was given the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.597767.

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Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

ADMM for the SDP relaxation of the QAP

Danilo Elias Oliveira, Henry Wolkowicz, Yangyang Xu

Semidefinite programming, SDP, relaxations have proven to be extremely strong for many hard discrete optimization problems. This is in particular true for the quadratic assignment problem, QAP, arguably one of the hardest NP-hard discrete optimization problems. There are several difficulties that arise in efficiently solving the SDP relaxation, e.g., increased dimension; inefficiency of the current primal–dual interior point solvers in terms of both time and accuracy; and difficulty and high expense in adding cutting plane constraints. We propose using the alternating direction method of multipliers ADMM in combination with facial reduction, FR, to solve the SDP relaxation. This first order approach allows for: inexpensive iterations, a method of cheaply obtaining low rank solutions; and a trivial way of exploiting the FR for adding cutting plane inequalities. In fact, we solve the doubly nonnegative, DNN, relaxation that includes both the SDP and all the nonnegativity constraints. When compared to current approaches and current best available bounds we obtain robustness, efficiency and improved bounds.

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Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

Learning customized and optimized lists of rules with mathematical programming

Cynthia Rudin, Seyda Ertekin

We introduce a mathematical programming approach to building rule lists, which are a type of interpretable, nonlinear, and logical machine learning classifier involving IF-THEN rules. Unlike traditional decision tree algorithms like CART and C5.0, this method does not use greedy splitting and pruning. Instead, it aims to fully optimize a combination of accuracy and sparsity, obeying user-defined constraints. This method is useful for producing non-black-box predictive models, and has the benefit of a clear user-defined tradeoff between training accuracy and sparsity. The flexible framework of mathematical programming allows users to create customized models with a provable guarantee of optimality. The software reviewed as part of this submission was given the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1344142.

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Mathematical Programming Computation, Volume 10, Issue 4, December 2018

QSDPNAL: a two-phase augmented Lagrangian method for convex quadratic semidefinite programming

Xudong Li, Defeng Sun, Kim-Chuan Toh

In this paper, we present a two-phase augmented Lagrangian method, called QSDPNAL, for solving convex quadratic semidefinite programming (QSDP) problems with constraints consisting of a large number of linear equality and inequality constraints, a simple convex polyhedral set constraint, and a positive semidefinite cone constraint. A first order algorithm which relies on the inexact Schur complement based decomposition technique is developed in QSDPNAL-Phase I with the aim of solving a QSDP problem to moderate accuracy or using it to generate a reasonably good initial point for the second phase. In QSDPNAL-Phase II, we design an augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) wherein the inner subproblem in each iteration is solved via inexact semismooth Newton based algorithms. Simple and implementable stopping criteria are designed for the ALM. Moreover, under mild conditions, we are able to establish the rate of convergence of the proposed algorithm and prove the R-(super)linear convergence of the KKT residual. In the implementation of QSDPNAL, we also develop efficient techniques for solving large scale linear systems of equations under certain subspace constraints. More specifically, simpler and yet better conditioned linear systems are carefully designed to replace the original linear systems and novel shadow sequences are constructed to alleviate the numerical difficulties brought about by the crucial subspace constraints. Extensive numerical results for various large scale QSDPs show that our two-phase algorithm is highly efficient and robust in obtaining accurate solutions. The software reviewed as part of this submission was given the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1206980.

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